|Rugadh||10.5.1900, Wendover, Buckinghamshire|
|Bàs||7.12.1979, Cambridge, Massachusetts|
|Oilthigh||Harvard College Observatory, Oilthigh Harvard|
Bha Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (10 dhen Chèitean 1900 – 7 dhen Dùbhlachd 1979) 'na reuladair agus reul-fhiosaigiche Bhreatainneach is Aimeireaganach a mhìnich carson a tha haidridean agus helium cho pailt ann an rionnagan 'na tràchdas PhD ann an 1925.
A beatha òg[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]
Rugadh Cecilia Helena Payne ann an Wendover, Sasainn. B' iad a pàrantan Emma Leonora Helena (née Pertz) agus Edward John Payne a bha na fear-lagha (barrister), fear-eachdraidh agus ceòladair. Bha triùir chloinne aca. Chaochail athair Cecilia nuair a bha i ceithir bliadhna a dh'aois agus b'fheudair dha màthair, Emma, an teaghlach àrachadh na h-aonar.
Bha i na sgoilear aig St Paul's Girls' School ann an Lunnainn. Chosg a màthair airgead air a' fhoghlam aig a brathair ach cha do chosg i airson Payne a' dol do dh'oilthigh. Ann an 1919 bhuannaich i sgoilearachd do Colaiste Newnham, Oilthigh Chambridge, far an do leugh i luibh-eòlas, fiosaigs agus ceimigeachd. Thòisich a ùidh ann an reul-eòlas nuair a chaidh i do òraid le Arthur Eddington mu dhèidhinn toisg do Principe agus coimheadachd reultan rè dubhradh na grèine. Dhearbhaich Eddington a' theòirig choitcheann na dàimheachd ris na coimheadachdan seo.
Bhuannaich Cecilia Payne duais aig an Amharc-Lann Colaiste Harvard reul-eòlas a dh'ionnsaich agus dh'imrich i do Ameireaga ann an 1923. Cha robh ach aon roghainn dreuchd do Payne aig an t-àm seo sa' Bhreatann Mhòr: tidsear a ghabhail ann.
Tràchdas[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]
Chuir Shapley ìmpidh Air Payne tràchdas dotaireach a sgrìobhadh, agus ann an 1925 chaidh i na chiad dhuine PhD ann an reul-eòlas a bhuannachadh à Colaiste Radcliffe (nise tha i na phàirt de Oilthigh Harvard. B' e Stellar Atmospheres, A Contribution to the Observational Study of High Temperature in the Reversing Layers of Stars a bh' ann an tiotal an tràchdais. Chan reuladair Otto Struve ris a dotaireachd "gun teagamh sam bith an tràchdas as sàr-thoinisgeil a sgrìobhadh ann an reul-eòlas."
B' urrainn do Phayne an seòrsachadh reultach agus an teòthachd a cheangal leis an teòiridh idheonachaidh fiosagaiche Innseanach Meghnad Saha a chleachdadh. Dhearbhaich i gun tàinig an t-iomadach ann an loidhnean speactraman sùghachd às an idheonachadh diofarach aig teòthachdan diofarach agus nach thàinig e à co-dhèanamhan eilemaideach diofarach. Mhol i gu ceart gur e ionann na h-uimhir sileacoin, carboin agus nan eileamaidean pailt eile ann an speactram na Grèine agus air an Talamh, ach bha haidridean a mhillean uiread cho pailt anns a' Ghrian ris air an Talamh.
Nuair a sgrùdadh an tràchdas Payne, thug reuladair Henry Norris Russell comhairle oirre gun a cho-dhùnadh gu bheil an diofar co-dhèanamh na grèine on thalamh. Smaoineachadh aig an t-àm sin gur e ionann co-dhèanamh na Grèine agus an Talamh.
Ach ceithir bliadhna air deireadh leig e seachad am beachd seo nuair a dh'obraich e gu eadar-dhealaichte an aon toradh. An dèidh dha dearbhadh gun robh Payne ceart, chuireadh an taisgealadh gu tric às an leth Russell ach dh'aidich e a h-obair ann an t-alt aige.
Beatha phearsanta[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]
Ann an 1931, ghabh Payne na saoranach Aimearaganach. Air turas tro Eòrpa ann an 1933, thachair i ri Sergei I. Gaposchkin, reuladair às an Ruis. Chuidich i e le visa Ameireaganach fhaighinn agus phòs iad ri chèile ann an 1934 is shuidhich iad ann an Lexington, faisg air Harvard. Bha trì cloinn, Edward, Katherine agus Peter aca.
Career[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]
After her doctorate, Payne then studied stars of high luminosity in order to understand the structure of the Milky Way. Later she surveyed all the stars brighter than the tenth magnitude. She then studied variable stars, making over 1,250,000 observations with her assistants. This work later was extended to the Magellanic Clouds, adding a further 2,000,000 observations of variable stars. These data were used to determine the paths of stellar evolution. Her observations and analysis, with her husband, of variable stars laid the basis for all subsequent work on them.
Payne-Gaposchkin remained scientifically active throughout her life, spending her entire academic career at Harvard. At first, she had no official position, merely serving as a technical assistant to Shapley from 1927 to 1938. At one point she considered leaving Harvard because of her low status and poor salary. However, Shapley made efforts to improve her position, and in 1938 she was given the title of "Astronomer". She later asked to have this title changed to Phillips Astronomer. None of the courses she taught at Harvard were recorded in the catalogue until 1945.
When Donald Menzel became Director of the Harvard College Observatory in 1954, he tried to improve her appointment, and in 1956 she became the first woman to be promoted to full professor from within the faculty at Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Later, with her appointment to the Chair of the Department of Astronomy, she also became the first woman to head a department at Harvard.
Appraisal of her career[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]
According to G. Kass-Simon and Patricia Farnes, Payne's career marked a sort of turning point at Harvard College Observatory. Under the direction of Harlow Shapley and Dr E.J.Sheridan (who, as of her biography, is seen as being a mentor-type figure), the observatory had already offered more opportunities in astronomy to women than did other institutions and notable achievements had been made earlier in the century by Williamina Fleming, Antonia Maury, Annie Jump Cannon, and Henrietta Leavitt. However, with Payne-Gaposchkin's Ph.D., women entered the 'mainstream'. The trail she blazed into the largely male-dominated scientific community was an inspiration to many. For example, she became a role model for noted astrophysicist Joan Feynman. Feynman's mother and grandmother had dissuaded her from pursuing science, since they believed women were not physically capable of understanding scientific concepts. But Feynman was later inspired by Payne-Gaposhkin when she came across some of her work in an astronomy textbook. Seeing Payne-Gaposhkin's research published in this way convinced Feynman that she could, in fact, follow her scientific passions.
Bibliography[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]
At the end of her life she had her autobiography privately printed as The Dyer's Hand.
Her academic books include:
- "The Stars of High Luminosity" (1930)
- "Variable Stars" (1938)
- "Variable Stars and Galactic Structure" (1954)
- "Introduction to Astronomy" (1956)
- "The Galactic Novae" (1957)
Significant papers include:
Honors[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]
- Elected member of Royal Astronomical Society while still a student at Cambridge 1923
- Annie J. Cannon Award in Astronomy (1934) - first recipient
- Member of the American Philosophical Society (1936)
- Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1943)
- Emeritus Professor of Harvard University in 1967
- Henry Norris Russell Lectureship of the American Astronomical Society in 1976
- Award of Merit from Radcliffe College in 1952
- Rittenhouse Medal from the Rittenhouse Astronomical Society at the Franklin Institute in 1961
- Honorary Degrees from Wilson College, Smith College, Western College, Colby College, and the Women’s Medical College of Philadelphia
- Asteroid 2039 Payne-Gaposchkin named after her
Quotation[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]
- The reward of the young scientist is the emotional thrill of being the first person in the history of the world to see something or to understand something. Nothing can compare with that experience... The reward of the old scientist is the sense of having seen a vague sketch grow into a masterly landscape.
Further reading[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]
- Rubin, Vera (2006), "Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin" in OUT OF THE SHADOWS: Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics, Nina Byers and Gary Williams, ed., Cambridge University Press (ISBN 978-0-521-82197-1 | ISBN 0-521-82197-5).
- Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: an autobiography and other recollections (1984), edited by her daughter, Katherine Haramundanis. (Presumably this builds on the 1979 autobiography, privately printed and of only 122 pages, entitled The dyer's hand: An autobiography by Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, published in 1979..)
- Interview of Dr. Cecilia Gaposchkin by Owen Gingerich on March 5, 1968, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA, http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4620.html
References[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]
- Turner, Jean (2001). "Cecilia Helena Payne-Gaposchkin (1900 - 1979)". Contributions of Women to Physics. Air a thogail 2012-10-10.
- Humfry Payne, Paolo Enrico Arias, La scultura arcaica in marmo dell'Acropoli (1981), d. 79: "Payne, Humfrey Gilbert Garth... figlio unico dello storico Edward John Payne e di sua moglie Emma Leonora Helena Pertz, nipote di Georg Heinrich Pertz, il curatore dei «Monumenta Germaniae Historica», e di James John Garth Wilkinson, il discepolo di Swedenborg.
- Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin Mathematics Genealogy Project, (accessdate=2010-05-06)
- Padman, Rachael (2004). "Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (1900 - 1979)". Newnham College Biographies. Air a thasglannadh [o http://www.newn.cam.ac.uk/about-newnham/college-history/biographies/content/cecila-payne-gaposchkin] 2010-03-05. Air a thogail 2010-03-05.
- The dyer's hand: An autobiography by Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, published in 1979.
- Hirshberg, Charles (2002-04-18). "My Mother, the Scientist". Popular Science.
- Ottaviani, Jim; Leland Myrick (2011). Feynman, 1st ed., New York: First Second. ISBN 978-1-59643-259-8.
- Sykes, ed. by Christopher (1995). No ordinary genius : the illustrated Richard Feynman. New York [u.a.]: Norton. ISBN 978-0393313932.
- Rittenhouse Medal Recipients, accessed 2012-10-10
- Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: Henry Norris Russell Prize Lecture of the American Astronomical Society - Fifty years of novae. Ann an: The Astronomical Journal. 82, dhen t-Sultain , S. 665. Bibcode: 1977AJ.....82..665P. doi:10.1086/112105. Air a thogail 26 October 2011.
- Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin in CWP at UCLA
- Harvard Square Library, two biographical sketches
- Bibliography from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
- Obituary - Physics Today 33 (1980) 64
- Obituary QJRAS 23 (1982) 450
- Oral history by Katharine Haramundanis, her daughter, describing the family life and her parents' research
- Obituary by The Rev. Dr. Herbert F. Vetter, former minister of her church and editor of the Web site Notable American Unitarians, 1936-1961 in U U World, Jan-Feb 2003.