Joshua Fishman

O Uicipeid
Gearr leum gu: seòladh, lorg
Joshua Fishman
Joshau Fishman Aberdeen.jpg
Fiosrachadh
Rugadh Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia 18mh An t-Iuchar 1926
Bàs Fhathast beò
Obair litreachas
Cànan Beurla
Linn 20mh linn
Gluasadan cànanaiche
Creideamh Iùdhach

'S e cànanaiche a th' ann an Joshua A. Fishman. Rugadh e ann an 1926 agus thogadh e ann am Philadelphia. Dh'ionnsaich e Iùdhais aig ìre bun-sgoile agus àrd-sgoile. Leugh e Iùdhais ann an Sgoiltean Workmen's Circle a chuir cuideim air comasan cànain, eachdraidh agus comann Iùdhais.

Rinn e ceum ann an eachdraidh agus saiceòlas aig Oilthigh Phennsylvania le sgoilearachd, far an robh e bho 1944 gu 1948. Às dèidh sin leugh e Iùdhais le Max Weinreich tron t-samhradh 1948. Fhuair e dreuchd mar saiceòlaiche foghlaim airson comataidh foghlam Iùdhais New York ann an 1951. Chuir e crìoch air a PhD ann an 1953 air saiceòlas sòisealta aig Oilthigh Cholumbia. Bha an trachdas aige mu dheidhinn "Negative Stereotypes Concerning Americans among American-born Children Receiving Various Types of Minority-group Education".

An toiseach bha e a' teagasg eòlas-comainn cànain aig City College New York agus bha e a' stiùireadh rannsachadh aig Bòrd nan Deuchainnean Inntrigidh bho 1955 gu 1958. Ann an 1958 fhuair e dreuchd mar ollamh airson chaidreachais agus saiceòlas aig Oilthigh Phennsylvania, agus às dèidh sin mar Ollamh saiceòlas agus eòlas comainn aig Oilthigh Yeshiva ann an New York.

Ann an 1966 chaidh e na Ollamh Rannsachaidh agus ann an 1988 chaidh e na ollamh emeritus. Rinn e obair aig pailteas de ionadan eile, mar ollamh a' tadhail ann am foghlam, cànanachas cleachdte, foghlam dà-chànanach agus iomadh-chultarail. Tha e ainmeil airson an Sgèile Ceumanaichte Crìonaidh eadar Ginealachan a sheallas pròsas soirbheachail de Ath-Bheothachadh Cànain.

Obair[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]

Cànan agus Cinneachd[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]

  • Cànan agus cinneachd/nàiseantas
  • Cànan agus creideamh
  • Gluasadan cànain, pàrtaidhean poilitigeach, beachd-smuaintean
a h-uile gin seo, gu h-àraidh sluaghadhan mhion-chultaran

Dealbhadh Cànain[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]

  • An dòigh a sheallas dealbhadh corpais planaichean inbhe
  • Oidhirp Ausbau, oidhirp cànan a chumail glan agus fìor, oidhirp classicization, oidhirp panification
  • Cruthachadh siostaman litreachaidh agus gan toirt gu bun-tomhais
  • Cruthachadh agus obrachadh acadamaidhean agus buidhnean cànain
a h-uile gin seo, gu h-àraidh sluaghadhan mhion-chultaran

Iùdhais[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]

  • Gach taobh sòiseal agus ionadail (eòlas-sluaigh, sgoiltean, cùrsaichean, pàipearan naidheachd, dealbhan-cluiche, litreachas
  • pàrtaidhean poiligeach, buidhnean-dèandais, seasamh, amsaa.)

Eôlas-comainn dualchainntean Iùdhais taobh a-muigh Eabhra: Judezmo/Ladino, Mugrabi, Zerfatie, Yevanic, Italkic, Yahudic, Farsic, amsaa..

Foghlam dà-chànanach[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]

Corpeòlas leigheil[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]

Leigheasan dùthchasach (homeopathic) An fheadhainn nach cleachdar ann an leaghasan an Iar (allopathic)[1]

Beachdan air Gàidhlig na h-Alba[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]

  • "a well high complete reliance on the school and other higher order 'props'" [2]

Leabhraichean[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]

  • 1965. Yiddish in America: socio-linguistic description and analysis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press; The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton.
  • 1966. Language loyalty in the United States; the maintenance and perpetuation of non-English mother tongues by American ethnic and religious groups. The Hague: Mouton.
  • 1966. Hungarian language maintenance in the United States. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • 1968. Language problems of developing nations. New York: Wiley.
  • 1968. Readings in the sociology of language. The Hague, Paris: Mouton.
  • 1970. Sociolinguistics: a brief introduction. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.
  • 1971. Bilingualism in the barrio. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • 1971-2. Advances in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton.
  • 1972. Language in Sociocultural Change. Essays by Joshua A. Fishman. Ed. Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • 1972. The sociology of language; an interdisciplinary social science approach to language in society. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.
  • 1973 (c 1972). Language and nationalism; two integrative essays. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.
  • 1974. Advances in language planning. The Hague: Mouton.
  • 1976. Bilingual education: an international sociological perspective. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.
  • 1977. Advances in the creation and revision of writing systems. The Hague: Mouton.
  • 1978. Advances in the study of societal multilingualism. The Hague: Mouton.
  • 1981. Never Say Die: A Thousand Years of Yiddish in Jewish Life and Letters. The Hague: Mouton. ISBN 90-279-7978-2 (ann am Beurla agus Iùdhais).
  • 1982. The acquisition of biliteracy: a comparative ethnography of minority ethnolinguistic schools in New York City. New York, N.Y.: Yeshiva University, Ferkauf Graduate School.
  • 1982. Bilingual education for Hispanic students in the United States. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • 1983. Progress in language planning: international perspectives. Berlin & New York: Mouton.
  • 1985. The rise and fall of the ethnic revival: perspectives on language and ethnicity. Berlin & New York: Mouton.
  • 1987. Ideology, Society and Language: The Odyssey of Nathan Birnbaum. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers.
  • 1991. Bilingual education. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: J. Benjamins Pub. Co.,
  • 1991. Reversing language Shift: Theory and Practice of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters. (ISBN 185359122X) (ISBN 978-1-85359-122-8)
  • 1991. Language and Ethnicity. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: J. Benjamins Pub. Co.
  • 1996. Post-Imperial English: The Status of English in Former British and American Colonies and Spheres of Influence. (ed.) Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin.
  • 1997. In Praise of the Beloved Language; The Content of Positive Ethnolinguistic Consciousness. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter.
  • 1997. The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York (with Ofelia Garcia). Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter.
  • 1999. Handbook of Language and Ethnicity (ed.). New York, Oxford University Press.
  • 2000. Can Threatened Languages Be Saved? Clevedon, Multilingual Matters.
  • 2006. Do Not Leave Your Language Alone: The Hidden Status Agendas Within Corpus Planning in Language Policy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (ISBN 0805850244) (ISBN 978-0-8058-5024-6)

Tùsan[deasaich | deasaich an tùs]

  1. Làrach oifigeil Joshua Fishman
  2. Fishman, J. (1991) Reversing language Shift: Theory and Practice of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, p.380.